In Utah we are very fortunate to have a plethora of good hiking trails at our disposal. However, it is important to know which ones allow dogs, and of those which allow your dog to go off leash.
It is very important that you follow policies on where your dog is allowed and if it is supposed to be on leash or if it can be off leash. The top two reasons why are:
1. The more dog owners comply the more cities, counties and other governing bodies are going to become more dog friendly. I have helped with creating recreational policy and with getting research for making decisions on things like this. Dog's are more likely to be banned or have more limitations put on them if their owners are not following policy already in place. Where as I have also found that areas are more likely to open up to dogs if there are minimal complaints about them in areas they are allowed to access.
2. For your dog's safety and the safety of others using the area. There are several trails that allow dogs that are leash only. Many times these trails also double for equine (horses) and cyclists. "But my dog is perfect around those two groups do I really have to keep on leash?" YES. Because your dog might be fine, but the person watching with their dog may not be. If you allow yourself an exception it creates rationale for others to do so and their dog may not be able to handle it. Also to be frank, it is a jerk move to other people using the area who are not expecting an off leash dog.
Having your dog greet people and other dog's on trail
I will break this section into two parts, on leash and off leash. For an on leash greet for another human with your dog, keep your dog by your side. Do not let it move in front of you. If a dog is placed between you and the other person the dog is going to feel it needs to protect you. You are setting your dog up to bite someone that way. Keep your dog to the side. In fact you should be a little in front of it. You need to first acknowledge the person vocally and I recommend saying something like this to your dog, "Look fluffy its a friend." Dogs do not speak English or any other human language but they do pick up on tone and few key vocab words. If you sound excited, in a good way, to see someone that will help relax your dog. DO NOT assume everyone wants to meet your dog. I recommend having your dog on your side, the opposite side the other person is, unless the other person specifically asks if they can meet/pet your dog. Feel free to say no. If you are having a hard time with fluffy respecting boundaries with strangers say no. Don't set your dog up to make itself or the other person uncomfortable. If you say yes have the other person approach slowly and if at all possible sideways (it comes across less aggressive to dogs and cuts down on any potential issues with the dog). They should approach about 2 feet from you and the dog and you should walk your dog the rest of the way. If your dog seems hesitant to meet them do not force it. Instruct them to let your dog sniff them before they go to pet and then ask them to avoid your dog's face. A lot of people do not realize that dog's are very picky about who touches their face. Owners knock yourselves out. Strangers do not do it. Let your dog get pet for about 5-10 seconds max and then move on. Believe it or not it can be stressful for a dog to be pet by someone it does not know for an extended period of time. Also sometimes people just want to do a quick pet and move on. Do not trap either those to into an extended pet session that one or both want to escape.
Okay next scenerio Dog meeting dog on leash. In general don't do it. But if you really want to the dogs should meet each other butt to nose and then butt to nose. Dog's are more nervous on leash than off. (which is why sometimes you find your dog listens better off leash) If two dogs meet and they are on leash they both are aware they cannot get away from the other quickly and they also have limited use of their body language. Dogs communicate to each other almost exclusively through body language. This meeting should be very short and quick. Do NOT let them play. If they get tangled in the leashes it can cause a dog to panic and a fight to ensue. Do NOT set your dog up for that situation.
Alright now for the fun stuff. Your dog greeting people and other dogs off leash. Now before I launch please be aware your dog should always be within eye sight and usually no more than 20 feet away from you. Your dog should come to you on command. If you have issues with your dog doing those two things you need to work with it to get it to do those two things before you are frequenting trails off leash. If you need help with that get a hold of me.
Alright your dog meet person off leash. This is one of the reasons its important to follow policy of areas on whether or not your dog can be off leash. If you are in an off leash area then anyone else using that trail is expecting to run into dogs. (If you are doing this in a non off leash area you are being a jerk to the other people using the are and to your dog.) Alright, ideally you see a person approaching again say something happy acknowledging the person and use a word like friend. (it is important to do that because if ever you are nervous about someone and you don't want your dog to instantly feel okay with them you don't use it. Your dog will notice and it will be more on alert.) I recommend teaching your dog a command called "polite" I use it with Stinker (my dog) ALL the time. Polite basically lets the person walk by your dog without your dog approaching them. It is important because although the person should be expecting to see a dog off leash they still may not want to meet your dog. Please also let the person know that your dog is friendly (if your dog is not friendly it has no business being off leash). What friendly means is your dog is not going to attack them or try to bite them unprovoked (aka unless they try to do something really stupid). If your dog approaches them you need to get to it ASAP (don't act panicked) and make sure you keep it moving along. If they want to pet it make sure your dog goes up to them first. I am going to through a quick plug in here YOU SHOULD NEVER PET A DOG UNLESS 1. It has approached you and seems interested in you petting it 2. you have asked the owner 3. the dog knows you are going to pet it. I had one idiot trail runner shoot his hand out to pet stinker last second. I thought he was going to hit her, apparently so did she because she instantly jumped away and growled. He nearly peed himself and I didn't feel bad for a moment. Granted I chastised Stinker for growling, but secretly I did not blame her. Slow movements please with all dogs. Alright again though only let the petting happen for about 5-10 seconds max and express for them to avoid your dog's face.
Dog meeting another dog on the trail of leash. Keep a sharp eye out. Not everyone's dog should be off leash. let the meet and greet be very short, and keep yourself and your dog moving through it. Somethings to watch for 1. if the dog has a muzzle on please keep your dog moving fast and if at all possible keep your dog from greeting the other dog. 2. if the other dog is on leash do not, if at all possible, let your dog greet it keep your dog moving. The on leash dog may not necessarily be aggressive, but it will feel very nervous by being approached by an off leash dog. Please remember people are hiking with their dogs to get exercise and with a time limit. Keep all interactions between the dogs short to be polite to the other person.
MOST dog owners are good about picking up their dog's crap and putting it in a bag. If your not start doing it. It is gross for other people to run into AND it can cause issues as it decays with watersheds and the ecosystem CLEAN IT UP. However, as these to pictures above depict its not just a matter of putting it in a bag. One common breech in etiquette that a lot of owners do make is they leave the bag on the side of the trail with the thought they will grab it on their way back. This is impolite for two reasons 1. the poo is still there and it is an eye sore. Carry the bag with you on your hike. I have known people to have a designated poo backpack or grocery sack the bring so that its not to big of a nuisance to carry, but either way your dog poops it you carry it the rest of the way other people do not need to see you poo filled bag lining the trail. 2. the other big reason is people forget to grab them on their way back. You just completed a long hike I promise one of the last things you are thinking about is picking that bag you dropped off an hour ago. I will state as well that if you see them I do not recommend picking them up for others in case their dog is sick and you somehow get some on you or your dog and also because then it encourages people to be lazy and think some magic poo elf will clean up after them. Don't do it. And most importantly DON"T LEAVE YOUR BAG ON THE SIDE OF THE TRAIL! (bet you don't know how I feel about, huh?)
Other odds and ends
A few other points to keep in mind.
1. Strive to keep your dog on the trail as much as possible. This keeps your dog and/or you from getting lost in the woods. It also cuts down on issues about dogs causing issues with watersheds (that is as far as I have seen one of the biggest arguments being used with forest service lands about keeping dogs out or on leash).
2. Do not be shy in giving directions to people on how to interact with your dog.
3. Do not try to discipline someone else's dog. Worry only about your dog.
4. Do not get upset if someone without a dog is being a bit of jerk. As long as you are following policy they can be a jerk, but it doesn't matter. They are not worth your time. You are in the right. Do not engage with them.
5. Have fun! Enjoy the beauty in nature!
This question is one of my favorites. I have gotten this question from people with cute new puppies, dogs they have had for years, and rescue dogs, basically everyone will ask this questions. The answer is it depends. Wait... did a dog trainer really just say you don't always need a dog trainer? oh yes I did. A lot of it depends on what you want from the dog and, in all honesty, a lot of it depends on your budget.
If you don't care what your dog does and if it listens to you then no need for any training. If you care but can't afford a trainer then you learn as you go, and aren't we all glad for youtube and google. However if you can afford a trainer and you want a well behaved dog I recommend hiring one.
But wait a moment, even if you have trained your own dog before you should hire a trainer? I recommend it. why? Because not all dogs are the same. Individual adjustments to training are a good idea. The trainer also provides a second pair of eyes, that shouldn't be biased, that can help you catch things you've missed. This is why I don't sell packages of 10 lessons, but rather set things up with you on your dog's needs. There may be some dogs I only need to work with once or twice- basically doing some finishing touches. There may be some dogs that I need to meet with 10 times and help you get it under control, and of course there is the happy middle ground.
To go with this, with my dog Stinker, the beautiful malamute on the banner, I have had several of my trainer peers work with her with me. What? A professional dog trainer enlisting other professional dog trainers? yes. They provided me with some insights that I was missing, because literally, I was too close to the situation.
However again I want to note, in some cases, if you can't afford a dog trainer and/or you really want to do it yourself with the aid of online resources your dog will most likely turn out just fine. But I will always recommend considering getting a dog trainer at least to give you some insights you might be missing.
Now if your dog is having aggression issues you need a trainer. if you dog will not respond to your commands you need a trainer. If you want to do a specialized certification you need a trainer (they have to sign off on it). If you dog is having other behavioral issues, for example keeps having accidents in the house, you need a trainer. I am being blunt. IF there is some issue you cannot get resolved, don't give away the dog, get a trainer.
One of the most ridiculous stories I have ever heard was when a family went camping with their 12 month old lab. They went to go on several hour activity and left the lab in the trailer unkenneled. Now this is also the first time the dog had ever been in the trailer. Anyone want to guess what happened? Yep you got it. The trailer was destroyed. They decided the problem was their dog and they needed to get rid of the dog. No let me explain to you what I had to fight myself not to explain to them. They were idiots. A young lab is very chewy. Especially when they are nervous or stressed. Guess what leaving the dog unattended for hours in new environment=mega stress. Now if they had had the dog kennel trained and in its kennel there would have been no problem. Now did the mean to be idiots.No. They honestly didn't know it was their first and according to the parents only dog. They found the dog a new home. I applaud. and that is the end of their dog story.
Now in my opinion what should have happened is they should have 1. been more observant and conscious of their dog. 2. IF they had been working with a trainer. any trainer worth their salt would have had them kennel train their puppy and would have walked them through appropriate times to kennel your dog. That camping experience would have been an appropriate time to kennel their dog. Even after the destruction tornado ransacked their camper rather than dog's bad they should have realized they screwed up and worked to train the dog so it was never a problem again. That is what the responsible dog owner does. They figure out what they need to do better and train the dog so there is no longer a problem. They do not get rid of a dog.
Anways, now that rant is over. Lets do a quick recap. In some cases you don't have to have a trainer, but there is not a case I am aware of where having a trainer is going to hurt. Also in most cases it is extremely beneficial.